Model Answers publishes reference ranges for risperidone and paliperidone plasma concentrations based on simulations from population pharmacokinetic models and evaluated based on external data.


Schizophrenia is a common disease managed by a range of interventions, with the primary treatment being antipsychotic medications (APS). Inadequate response, lack of adherence, and/or adverse events often prevent optimal therapeutic effects or therapeutic efficiency. Monitoring APS plasma concentrations can be used together with a full clinical evaluation to help improve patient care or offer better treatment options for the patient. To enable interpretation of individual risperidone and paliperidone plasma concentrations, we developed “reference ranges,” which consider the expected variability in plasma concentrations between subjects across the population, rather than representing a “therapeutic range” that relates to efficacy and/or safety outcomes. The reference ranges were derived from population pharmacokinetic models, which varied based upon administration route, dose, and time after dose. Good agreement between the proposed reference ranges and external data was obtained through graphical and numerical evaluations, indicating they could be reliably used in clinical practice.

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